Fundamental study of extreme UV resist line edge roughness: Characterization, experiment, and modeling
Resist sensitivity and surface roughness data. (a) EUV contrast curve for four different resist materials; (b) surface roughness vs thickness for four resist materials exposed and processed under similar conditions (EUV exposure; PAB/PEB = 110 °C/60 s; TMAH development for 30 s).
Top-down SEM micrographs of 30 nm L/S patterns. (a) PHS-MAdMA resist, (b) NORIA-MAdMA resist, (c) NBHFAM-MAdMA resist (substrate: DUV42P on silicon; film thickness = 60 nm; exposure: LBNL EUV MET (rotated dipole); PAB/PEB = 110 °C/60 s; TMAH development for 30 s).
(Color online) (a) Optical photograph of PDMS flow cell on a 200 mm wafer with exposed NORIA-MAdMA resist; (b) schematic of exposure pattern illustrating four columns with large pads for thickness measurements (A) and four columns with test pattern containing L/S features (B).
SEM images of cross-sectioned NORIA-MAdMA resist showing a sequence of develop times for 160 nm L/S features. Image (a) is at the shortest develop time and (e) is at the longest. Arrows indicate the exposed area of the pattern. (substrate: DUV42P on silicon; film thickness = 100 nm; PAB = 110 °C/60 s; exposure: 248 nm (KrF, annular illumination); PEB = 120 °C/60 s; 0.00065 N TMAH development).
Summary of CD and LER through pitch data for 60 nm line patterns. CD and LER measured obtained from top down SEM images using SuMMIT image analysis software.
(Color online) (a) Cross-sectional images, and (b) 3D AFM images of resist and resist/underlayer samples; (c) AFM line profile of final etched OHM pattern scanned at different Z-heights.
(Color online) Summary of 3σ LER values for a representative set of the simulated resist materials. 3σ LER vs dissolution zone width (d) for fc of 0.5.
(Color online) Summary of 3σ LER spectral density for the simulated resist materials for the case where d = 10 nm and fc = 0.5.
(Color online) Comparison of a series of LER spectral densities for the C27 molecular glass (top) and N16 polymer (bottom) resists for fc = 0.5 at varying values of d.
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