Schematic deposition representing the preparation of the W tip containing Pd-atom source on the backward side in solution. The diagrams represent separate stages in the process: (a) Cutting a polycrystalline W wire; (b) removing native oxide layers; (c) depositing Pd films by electroplating; and (d) sharpening the end of the W tip.
FIM images of structural changes in the course of nanopyramid growth. Images (a) and (b) were taken after the sample was annealed at 1000 K for 10 min and 60 min, respectively. Afterward, structural changes stopped despite continued annealing treatments. Images (c) and (d) were acquired after faster annealing at higher temperatures as explained in the text. Additional annealing at the usual temperature of 1000 K brought about continued nanopyramid growth as indicated in the typical image (e).
FIM images of the evolution in nanopyramid growth for SAE prepared by the backward electroplating method represented in order of treatments. The specimen of (a) was unprocessed, except for the atmospheric treatment described in Sec. II B . Images (b)–(d) were acquired after an annealing treatment at 1000 K for 10 min. Images (e) and (f) were taken after additional annealing at 1000 K for 270 min.
(Color online) I–V characteristics and Fowler–Nordheim plots measured at the SAE tips prepared by (a) vacuum deposition, (b) electroplating, and (c) backward electroplating. Subscripted letters correspond to the following treatments: a1—field evaporation, a2—Pd-atom deposition, a3—10 min and 1000 K annealing, a4—90 min and 1000 K annealing leading to SAE tip formation, b1—As installed, b2—field evaporation, b3—40 min and 1000 K annealing, b4—150 min and 1000 K annealing leading to SAE tip formation, c1—field evaporation, c2—40 min and 1000 K annealing, and c3—30 min and 1000 K annealing leading to SAE tip formation.
FE current vs time for (a) the vacuum deposition method, (b) the electroplating method, and (c) the backward electroplating method.
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