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Fabrication of large-area, high-density Ni nanopillar arrays on GaAs substrates using diblock copolymer lithography and electrodeposition
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10.1116/1.4798464
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/3/10.1116/1.4798464
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/3/10.1116/1.4798464
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic of the process flow for fabricating Ni nanopillar arrays on n-GaAs substrates: (a) neutral brush-layer formation by spin coating; (b) PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymer self-assembly on the brush layer; (c) selective removal of PMMA cylinders by UV exposure and acetic-acid development; (d) removal of the brush layer within each hole of the PS template using O plasma RIE to expose the highly doped GaAs surface for Ni electrodeposition; (e) Ni nanopillars formation within each hole of the PS template by electrodeposition; and (f) removal of PS template using O plasma, leaving behind Ni nanopillar arrays on n-GaAs substrates.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Plane-view SEM images of (a) large-area PS template on a n-GaAs substrate after selective removal of PMMA cylinders; (b) the PS template at higher magnification, with holes hexagonally arranged, of ∼18 nm diameter and a center-to-center spacing of ∼34 nm; (c) large-area fabricated Ni nanopillar arrays on a n-GaAs substrate; and (d) the fabricated Ni nanopillar arrays at higher magnification. Scale bars are (a) 200 nm, (b) 20 nm, (c) 300 nm, and (d) 100 nm wide.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Tilted SEM image of PS template after Ni electrodeposition. (b) Tilted SEM image of Ni nanopillar arrays after PS removal via O plasma. Scale bars are (a) 100 nm and (b) 200 nm wide.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Hole-diameter distribution of the PS template after (a) PMMA cylinder removal; (b) 8 s of 150-W, O-plasma RIE to remove the brush layer within each hole; and (c) the Ni nanopillar diameter distribution after removing the PS template. The red curves in (a)–(c) are computed Gaussian fitting curves for which the calculated mean diameters are 18, 24, and 24 nm, respectively. (d) and (e) Plane-view SEM images of the PS template after only 6 s of 150-W, O-plasma RIE for brush removal before and after Ni electrodeposition. The mean diameter of the holes in the PS template [inset in (d)] is ∼21 nm. Scale bars are 40 nm wide.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Plane-view SEM image of PS templates prepared on a 5-nm-thick Ni, conductive seed layer evaporated on GaAs substrates (a) after Ni electrodeposition at a plating-current density of 25 A/cm; (b)–(d) after an electrochemical etch step and Ni electrodeposition at a plating-current density of 25, 100, and 125 A/cm, respectively. Scale bars are (a) 50 nm, (b) 50 nm, (c) 100 nm, and (d) 100 nm wide.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Plane-view SEM image of a PS template on a GaAs substrate after e-beam evaporation of 3 nm of Ni and liftoff. Inset: tilted SEM image of thePS template after brush-layer removal within each hole (scale bar corresponds to 100 nm). Scale bars are 200 nm wide.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/3/10.1116/1.4798464
2013-04-04
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Fabrication of large-area, high-density Ni nanopillar arrays on GaAs substrates using diblock copolymer lithography and electrodeposition
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/3/10.1116/1.4798464
10.1116/1.4798464
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