(a) Illustration of the experimental setup; (b) photo of the experimental setup.
(a) Sketch of the bowtie aperture, (b) its optical transmission intensity at the exit plane, (c) sketch of the mask, and (d) SEM image of a bowtie array on top of one island (the inset is a zoom-in image of one of the bowtie apertures).
(a) Sketch of ISPI checkerboard gratings and typical fringe image captured by the ISPI camera. (b) Illustration of the working mechanism of ISPI.
(a) Simulated and (b) experimental relation of the frequency and phase of the fringes vs the gap.
ISPI gapping with and without feedback: (a) and (b) statically, and (c) and (d) during scanning.
Illustration of alignment using the ISPI detection: (a) before alignment; (b) after alignment.
(a) Height of the piezoelectric stage vs the gap value detected by the ISPI. (b) and (c) AFM results of the line produced with a speed of 1.5 μm/s and a gap of 10 nm.
Result of parallel lithography with a line width of 86 nm.
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