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Smoothing mechanisms involved in thermal treatment for linewidth roughness reduction of 193-nm photoresist patterns
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10.1116/1.4825238
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4825238
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4825238
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Typical chemical structure of polymer used in 193-nm photoresist formulation. It consists of MAMA in the leaving group, α-GBLMA in the lactone group, and HAMA in the polar group.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Determination of glass transition temperature, Tg, by DMA and (b) TGA of IM5010 photoresist.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Photoresist film thickness evolution with bake temperature determined by ellipsometry: (◻) as-deposited resist with initial thickness of 130 nm and (○) underexposed resist with initial thickness of 113 nm.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) FTIR spectra evolution of photoresist films before (as-deposited) and after bake with temperatures ranging from 180 to 220 °C. (a)CO stretching region, (b) COC stretching region, and (c) CH, CH stretching region.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Evolution with bake temperature of isolated resist pattern profiles reconstructed by CD-AFM. (b) Evolution with bake temperature of isolated and dense resist pattern CD determined by CD-SEM.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) PSDs of the photoresist line width after lithography and after thermal processing using bake temperatures ranging from 120 to 200 °C for (a) isolated lines and (b) dense lines. Open symbols stand for experimental data and solid lines represent theoretical fits. The x abscise represents the wave number k = 2π/λ, where λ is the roughness period. After equipment noise removal from the spectra, PSDs are arbitrarily readjusted to a σ of 1 to allow comparison. Low-frequency roughness components σ are defined as frequency range below 0.0393 cm−1, i.e., period above 160 nm.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Evolution with bake temperature of (a) the normalized true LWR and (b) the roughness parameters (ξ and α) for isolated and dense lines. Initial isolated and dense pattern LWRs are 5.3 and 7.1 nm, respectively.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Evolution with bake temperature of high-(σ) and low-(σ) frequency roughness components of LWR for (a) isolated and (b)dense lines.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Contrast curve experiment.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) FTIR spectra evolution with bake temperature ranging from 120 to 200 °C of underexposed photoresist film. (a) COC stretching region, (b) OH stretching region, and (c) CH, CH stretching region.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (a) Determination by DMA of the glass transition temperature, Tg, of underexposed resist film before and after a bake at 200 °C; (b) Thermal gravimetry analyses of underexposed resist.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Evolution of RMS roughness with bake temperature for underexposed resist film.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4825238
2013-10-18
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Smoothing mechanisms involved in thermal treatment for linewidth roughness reduction of 193-nm photoresist patterns
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4825238
10.1116/1.4825238
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