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Silicon nitride zoneplates and packaging for extreme ultraviolet instruments
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10.1116/1.4826695
/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4826695
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4826695

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Reflectivity as a function of angle of a SiN on Si sample covering several orders of magnitude from glancing incidence to near normal incidence. The best fit parameters show n = 0.979 + 0.0066 and thickness = 102.5 nm at a wavelength of 13.5 nm.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Complex amplitude Z of a wave propagated through a thickness, t, of SiN compared to a wave propagated through free space. The scalar diffraction efficiency of the mth order is equal to (S/(mπ))2 sin(mπb), where S is the square of the length of vector.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Measured zero order and first order diffraction efficiency of a 600 nm period grating with a line to period ratio, b, of 0.56. The solid lines represent the scalar theory efficiency and agree well with the measurements.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Top and (b) cross section view of a “freestanding” SiN structure held together with buttresses etched all the way through the SiN membrane. The period is 160 nm and the thickness is 320 nm. The measured absolute diffraction efficiency of this structure is 15%, which is less than an ideal structure due to the finite width of the buttresses.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Freestanding zoneplate array in 100 nm thick SiN used for EUV mask inspection.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) Electromagnetic calculations of the efficiency and (b) phase error normalized to 2π, of the first diffracted order as a function of period at normal incidence. A SiN thickness of 250 nm was assumed. λ/40 represents an acceptable relative phase error. The responses are flat until a period of about 100 nm at which point it rapidly changes. Zoneplates with outer zones of 50 nm or larger should perform as expected. Zoneplates with smaller outer zones may have additional aberrations due to the high-aspect ratio waveguide nature of the zones.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) Electromagnetic calculations of the efficiency and (b) phase errors normalized to 2π, of the different diffracted order as a function of period, with a 6° of incident angle. A SiN thickness of 250 nm was assumed. λ/40 represents an acceptable relative phase error. The efficiency is flat until a period of about 160 nm at which point it rapidly changes. Zoneplates with outer zones of 80 nm or larger should perform as expected. Zoneplates with smaller outer zones may have additional aberrations due to the high-aspect ratio waveguide nature of the zones.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) Precise gap is determined by the ruby ball diameter and the lithographically defined grooves. is the half width of the groove, the diameter of the ball, and equals to 54.7° defined by the silicon crystal planes. (b) This concept is used to attach an aperture and mate to the stage.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) (a) Front side and (b) backside of a packaged EUV zoneplate and aperture pair. The package was glued to a metal plate with through holes for ease of handling.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Measured diffraction efficiency for 600 nm period gratings of various depths in 400 nm thick silicon nitride membrane at 13.5 nm wavelength.

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/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4826695
2013-10-28
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Silicon nitride zoneplates and packaging for extreme ultraviolet instruments
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/avs/journal/jvstb/31/6/10.1116/1.4826695
10.1116/1.4826695
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