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Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters
Schematic diagram of the 3D flag in a uniform flow. Points A, B and C denote the lower corner, the midpoint and the upper corner on the trailing edge, respectively.
Time histories of the transverse displacements of point B (Fig. 1) from their equilibrium positions at (solid line). The result of Huang and Sung16 is given for comparison (dashed line). Here, T is the period of the flag flapping.
Time history of the transverse displacements of point B in bistability.
Orbits in the phase plane z-w for the two cases shown in Fig. 3.
Time history of the transverse displacements of point B in instability at , , and .
(Color online) Vortical structures at the four instants as labeled in Fig. 5.
Stability boundaries in the (S-U) plane for the flag at (2D), 1 and 2. The symbols represent the cases of numerical simulation and their stability: △, , stable; ▲, , unstable; ◇, , stable; ◆, , unstable. The dashed and dash-dotted lines approximate to the boundaries based on the numerical result.
The Strouhal number and the amplitude of the flag for the case in Fig. 2.
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