Principle of cladding with scanning optics. The scanner spreads the laser beam to the desired width and the additive powder is fed to the melt pool generated by the laser.
Terminology and parameters in laser cladding with scanning optics.
Power adjustment points placed in a sinusoidal wave (a) and the power adjustment diagram created by 32 adjustment points (b).
The dependence of the geometry of a clad bead cross-section on scanning amplitude. (a) A = 17.5 mm and v = 1.67 mm/s; (b) A = 9.6 mm and v = 3.33 mm/s; and (c) A = 3.1 mm and v = 3.33 mm/s.
Dependence of (a) the clad bead side angle and (b) the clad bead thickness on the cladding speed.
(a) Melt pool behavior under the scanned beam. f = 100 Hz, A = 17.47 mm, Pmax = 5 kW, v = 1.67 mm/s, used power adjustment diagram, see Fig. 3(a). (b) Free body diagram of how escaping vapors create a dent in the melt pool.
Clad bead microstructure. A clad with 17.5 mm scanning amplitude and 33 mm/s cladding speed, geometrical dilution 34%.
Defects formed in clad beads: (a) lack of fusion and (b) undercut.
Dependence of dilution of clad bead on cladding speed with different scanning amplitudes.
Change in the melt pool geometry with cladding speed and scanning amplitude. (a) Amplitude 17.5 mm and cladding speeds from top to bottom 1.67, 3.33, and 5 mm/s. (b) Amplitude 3.1 mm and cladding speeds from top to bottom 3.33, 5, and 8.33 mm/s.
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