(a) Gaussian-like beam profile and (b) measured beam profile and focus density.
The schematic of computational domain and boundary conditions.
The schematic diagram of experiment set-up.
Weld penetrations of samples with and without groove.
Computational results of plasma plume along laser incident path (x = 0, y = 0). (a) Temperature, (b) mass fraction of helium, and (c) velocity.
The computational isotherms of plasma plume on the plane of y = 0. (a) On plate and (b) inside groove.
Grey contours of typical image of plasma plume. (a) on plate and (b) inside groove.
Continuous images of plasma plume drawn from welding process randomly. (a) On plate and (b) inside groove.
The accumulated grey intensity of plasma plume on the plate or inside groove. (a) Accumulated grey intensity of on-plate plume, (b) probability density distribution of (a), (c) frequency spectrum of (a), (d) accumulated grey intensity of inside-groove plume, (e) probability density distribution of (d), and (f) frequency spectrum of (d).
Lennard–Jones parameters for He and Fe.
Laser welding parameters of comparison experiments.
Parameters of spectral lines for computing plasma temperature.
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