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Experimental study of effects of main process parameters on porosity,
track geometry, deposition rate, and powder efficiency for high deposition rate
laser metal deposition
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Laser metaldeposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing
process. Although much research regarding effects of process parameters on
deposition quality has been conducted in recent decades,
the studies in this field are still lacking for high deposition rates
(>0.3 kg/h) LMD. Most of the previous investigations were based on
traditional LMD process, characterized by a low deposition rate
(<0.3 kg/h). This paper presents a pilot study to find the answer on the
effects of main process parameters on track dimensions and process
characteristics in high deposition-rate LMD. Inconel 718 (IN718) powder was used as
composition, porosity, shape, and morphology of the used
powder were analyzed to ensure that the necessary
specifications are met. Based on a high deposition-rate LMD
process, which has a deposition rate of approximately 2 kg/h, experiments were
designed and carried out on a dedicated high deposition-rate LMD
experimental setup. Furthermore, effects of main process parameters (laser
power, scanning speed, and powder mass flow) on porosity, track geometry,
deposition rate, and powder efficiency
were investigated. It is found that track porosity decreases with an increase of
laser powder or a decrease of powder mass flow;
the consistency of cross-sectional porosity is relative poor if laser
powder is insufficient or powder mass flow is
excessive. The transition between substrate surface and track
surface becomes smoother with increasing laser power,
increasing scanning speed or decreasing powder mass flow.
Deposition rate and powder efficiency
keep relatively constant after a significant increase with increased laser power
until a certain threshold, but they are not correlated with scanning speed.
Deposition rate increases whereas powder efficiency
decreases with an increase of powder mass flow.
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