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1. J. Siltanen, J. Kömi, R. Laitinen, M. Lehtinen, S. Tihinen, U. Jasnau, and A. Sumpf, “ Laser-GMA hybrid welding of 960 MPa steels,” in Proceedings of International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, Anaheim (2011).
2. F. F. Kalkhorani., J. Siltanen, and A. Salminen, “ Autogenous high power fiber laser welding of Optim 960QC ultra-high-strength-steel,” Master's thesis, Lappeenranta, Finland (2014).
3. J. Kömi, “ Direct—quenched structural steel,” Design Manual (2013).
4. R. Laitinen, J. Kömi, M. Keskitalo, and J. Mäkikangas, “ Improvement of the strength of welded joints in ultra-high-strength Optim 960 QC using autogenous Yb:YAG laser welding,” in Proceedings of Nolamp Conference, Lappeenranta, Finland (2007).
5. K. Farhang Farrokhi, J. Siltanen, and A. Salminen, “ High power fiber laser of direct quenched ultra high strength steels—Evaluation of hardness, tensile strength, and toughness properties at subzero temperatures,” article proposal, Lappeenranta, Finland, 2014.
6. J. Siltanen and S. Tihinen, “ Position welding of 960 MPA ultra-high-strength-steel,” in Proceedings of International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, Anaheim (2012).
7. A. Balk, “ Impact of balance filler material on the strength of welds on Ruukki's Optim 960 QC ultra-high-strength steel,” Bachelor's thesis, Kemi, Finland (2011).
8. R. Ylikangas, “ The effect of tack welds on ultra-high-strength Optim 960 QC steel,” Master's thesis, Lappeenranta, Finland (2009).
9. A. Fellman, “ Welding of Optim 960 QC steel,” Internal Report No. RR038 of Ruukki (2008).
10. J. Kömi, “ Hot-rolled ultra-high-strength steels,” J. Mater. 1, 5051 (2012),
11. P. Leiviskä, A. Fellman, R. Laitinen, and M. Vänskä, “ Strength properties of laser and laser hybrid welds of low alloyed high strength steels,” in Proceedings of Nolamp Conference, Lappeenranta, Finland (2007).
12. J. Siltanen, “ Utilising laser-GMA hybrid welding in industrial application,” in Proceedings of International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, Anaheim (2010).
13. J. Siltanen, “ Fiber laser GMA hybrid welding of telescopic booms,” Ruukki Internal Research Report, Hämeenlinna, Finland (2010).
14. R. Laitinen, M. Lehtinen, A. Fellman, and V. Kujanpää, “ Influence of laser and CO2-laser-MAG hybrid welding on the strength and toughness of the weld HAX of ultra high strength steel Optim 960 QC,” in Proceedings of Nolamp Conference, Luleå, Sweden (2005).

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Welding trials have been carried out using direct-quenched 960 MPa ultrahigh-strength steel utilizing several welding processes: gas-metal-arc, laser, and laser gas-metal-arc hybrid welding. Laser power sources like the CO-laser and the fiber-delivered solid state laser were used. In the trials, butt joints with various groove geometries were used and the thickness of the base material was a constant 6 mm. Welding filler materials varied from matching Union X96 (ISO 14341: G 89 5 M Mn4Ni2.5CrMo) to undermatching Esab OK 12.50 (G3Si1). The diameter of the filler wire varied from 1 to 1.2 mm. The highest hardness value, over 400 HV, was reached on laser welds. According to the results, the strength of the joints corresponded to the nominal strength of base materials (tensile strength of 960 MPa), regardless of the welding method and welding filler material used. As a whole, the results of transverse bend testing were poor as expected, especially when the face side of welds was under tension. The standardized bend and also the used impact toughness tests (Charpy-V) are not the best methods to evaluate the ductility or the toughness of a weld in direct-quenched steels. However, relatively good impact toughness values were achieved to the fusion line of the welds both with the continuous laser and laser hybrid welding process, reaching 57 J with the laser welding and 49 J with the laser hybrid welding when the matching filler material was used.


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