Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. R. Fabbro, “ Melt pool and keyhole behaviour analysis for deep penetration laser welding,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 445501 (2010).
2. A. Hess and F. Dausinger, “ Humping mechanisms during high-speed welding with brilliant lasers,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics (2008).
3. P. Berger, H. Hügel, A. Hess, R. Weber, and T. Graf, “ Understanding of humping based on conservation of volume flow,” Phys. Procedia 12, 232240 (2011).
4. M. Beck, “ Modellierung des Tiefschweißens,” Ph.D. thesis, Universität Stuttgart 1996.
5. J. W. S. B. Lord Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound ( Macmillan, London, 1896), Vol. 2.
6. S. Tsukamoto, H. Irie, M. Inagaki, and T. Hashimoto, “ Effect of focal position on humping bead formation in electron beam welding,” Trans. Natl. Res. Inst. Met. 25, 6267 (1983).
7. B. Bradstreet, “ Effect of surface tension and metal flow on weld bead formation,” Weld. J. 47, 314-s322-s (1968).
8. C. Thomy, T. Seefeld, and F. Vollertsen, “ Humping effect in welding of steel with single-mode fibre laser,” Weld. World 52, 918 (2008).
9. U. Gratzke, P. D. Kapadia, J. Dowden, J. Kroos, and G. Simon, “ Theoretical approach to the humping phenomenon in welding processes,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 25, 16401647 (1992).
10. C. E. Albright and S. Chiang, “ High-speed laser welding discontinuities,” J. Laser Appl. 1, 1824 (1988).
11. S. Neumann, T. Seefeld, and M. Schilf, “ Influence of material and process parameters on the humping effect,” in Proceedings of the ICALEO (2008), pp. 345353.
12. A. Patschger, J. Bliedtner, and J. P. Bergmann, “ Process-limiting factors and characteristics of laser-based micro welding,” Phys. Procedia 56, 740749 (2014).
13. C. Smithells, in Smithells Metals Reference Book, edited by E. A. Brandes and G. B. Brook ( Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 1992).
14.ThyssenKrupp, “Titan grade 1,” Data Sheet, ThyssenKrupp, 2012.
15. J. R. Davis, Metals Handbook Desk ( ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1998).
16. I. Egry, E. Ricci, R. Novakovic, and S. Ozawa, “ Surface tension of liquid metals and alloys ‘€’ Recent developments,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 159, 198212 (2010).
17. P.-F. Paradis, T. Ishikawa, and S. Yoda, “ Non-contact measurements of surface tension and viscosity of niobium, zirconium, and titanium using an electrostatic levitation furnace,” Int. J. Thermophys. 23, 825842 (2002).
18.ThyssenKrupp Material, “Nichtrostender austenitischer Chrom-Nickel-Stahl,” Data Sheet, ThyssenKrupp Material, 2007.
19. S. Hiramoto, M. Ohmine, T. Okuda, and A. Shinmi, “ Deep penetration welding with high power CO sub 2 laser,” in LAMP'87: Laser Advanced Materials Processing—Science and Applications (1987), pp. 157162.

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



During laser microwelding, the melt pool behavior and the formation of the weld seam depend on various process parameters. In this paper, the authors performed tests to clarify the influence of laser power , the feeding rate , the focal diameter , the foil thickness , and the thermophysical material properties. Ultrathin metal foils such as stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium in thicknesses of 50 and 100 m were welded in bead-on-plate welds in order to generate a full penetration weld. For this purpose, focal diameters between 25 and 78 m were applied. By means of high-speed videography and micro-cross-sections, the observations were analyzed depending on the feeding rate. Imperfections such as root defects, surface structures, and humps were described and evaluated. Moreover, the influence of melt pool behavior prior to the appearance of humping is illustrated for full penetration microwelding in contrast to insufficient welds. The Rayleigh theory of the instability of a free suspended liquid cylinder is discussed. A correlation between the length of the melt pool and the spot size is examined to define the humping threshold for stainless steel. Due to the different thermophysical properties of the applied materials, weld seam formation and process behavior are changed.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd