Rheological and morphological properties of reactively compatibilized thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blendsa)
Schematic of the reactions involved in synthesizing the compatibilizer copolymer.
Mechanical representation of (a) ordinary Zener model, (b) Zener model with two FE (Sailer and Handge, 2007), and (c) GZM.
AFM micrographs of PP70 samples quenched right after mixing in the internal mixer: (a) PP70n, (b) PP70m, and (c) PP70h.
AFM micrographs of PP70 samples after compression molding and squeezing in the gap of the cone-and-plate geometry at 200 °C for 30 min: (a) PP70n, (b) PP70m, and (c) PP70h.
Variations of the storage modulus (a) and the complex viscosity (b) with frequency for the PP70 blends with different levels of compatibilizer. The insets show the predictions of the Palierne model (data are shifted by factors shown).
Predictions of the Zener model with two FE and of the Palierne model with equilibrium modulus for the storage modulus of the PP70h blend (data are shifted by factors shown). The solid line represents the behavior of suspensions of rigid particles predicted by the Palierne model for rigid inclusions.
Comparison between the experimental data (shifted by factors shown) and the predictions of the loss tangent versus frequency for the PP70 blends using the modified Palierne model, the Zener model with two FE and its fractional generalization (GZM).
Morphology of the PP/EC (85/15) blends: (a) noncompatibilized (PP85n) and (b) compatibilized with 5 wt. % PPNH2 (PP85h).
Storage modulus (a) and loss tangent (b) as functions of frequency for PP85n and PP85h blends, along with the predictions of GZM and the Palierne model.
Stress growth data for the PP70n and PP70m blends at and . Solid lines represent the predictions of the LPL model for the PP70n blend.
Stress growth data for the PP70h blend at , , and , along with the predictions of the GZM.
Stress relaxation behavior of the PP70 blends after cessation of shearing at .
Morphology of blends with different compatibilizer concentrations after shearing at for 1 h: (a) PP70n, (b) PP70m, and (c) PP70h.
Properties of the polymers used.
Fitting parameters of the fractional Zener model with two FE.
Fitting parameters of the GZM.
Parameters used for predicting the transient shear viscosity of the PP70n blend.
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