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The rheological characterization of algae suspensions for the production of biofuels
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10.1122/1.4717494
/content/sor/journal/jor2/56/4/10.1122/1.4717494
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/sor/journal/jor2/56/4/10.1122/1.4717494
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) A photograph of the PAV; (b) longitudinal cut of the PAV (left-hand side) and transverse cut (right-hand side) of the tube containing the piezoelements. Reproduced from Crassous et al., Journal of Rheology 49, 851–863 (2005).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Dynamic strain sweep measurement on different concentrations of S. obliquus algae suspension at constant frequency of 10 rad/s using the ARES. G′ data (empty symbol) and G″ data (full symbol). Cell concentrations of 15 vol. % (), 9.0 vol. % (), and 6.8 vol. % ().

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Validation experiment on the PAV data with the ARES data for a 9 vol. % S. obliquus suspension. ARES data (empty symbol) and PAV data with a gap size of 25 μm (full symbol). η* (), G″ (), and G′ ().

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Variation of complex viscosity with volume fraction at different frequencies of 49 Hz (), 95 Hz (), and 241 Hz () obtained using PAV at 25 °C. A linear straight line shows the Einstein prediction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Dependence of storage modulus (G′) on volume fraction at different frequencies of 49 Hz (), 95 Hz (), and 241 Hz () from PAV measurements at 25 °C.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Dependence of loss modulus (G″) on volume fraction at different frequencies of 49 Hz (), 95 Hz (), and 241 Hz () from PAV measurements at 25 °C.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

A plot of the phase angle (θ) as a function of volume fraction at a frequency of 241 Hz using the PAV at 25 °C. The graph shows that at low concentration, θ is closer to the theoretical 90° for Newtonian fluids.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Cox–Merz plot showing apparent viscosity from ARES steady shear () and complex viscosity from ARES dynamic frequency sweeps () and PAV frequency sweeps with a gap size of 35 μm () on a 12 vol. % S. obliquus suspension at 25 °C.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Optical micrographs of 0.2 vol. % S. obliquus algae suspension taken with an Olympus BH-2 at 50× magnification during shearing (a) no shear, (b)–(d) with shear rate of 10 s−1, 100 s−1, and 1000 s−1, respectively, after 20 s.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Effect of motility on LVE response for a 3 vol. % S. obliquus algae suspension from PAV measurement with a gap size of 10 μm. (a) Storage modulus, G′ (b) loss modulus, G″ and (c) complex viscosity, η*.

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/content/sor/journal/jor2/56/4/10.1122/1.4717494
2012-05-18
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The rheological characterization of algae suspensions for the production of biofuels
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/sor/journal/jor2/56/4/10.1122/1.4717494
10.1122/1.4717494
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