Schematic of EFC process and associated flow kinematics.
Nonlinear transient rheology at 150 °C of (a) LLDPE 2045G, (b) LLDPE PL1840G, (c) HDPE DMDH6400, and (d) LDPE 170A. Filled and unfilled symbols correspond to step shear and uniaxial extension measurements, respectively (circles: 0.1 s−1; triangles: 0.3 s−1; squares: 1 s−1; inverted triangles: 3 s−1; and diamonds: 10 s−1; dashed and solid lines are model predictions for step shear and uniaxial extension).
Experimental normalized film width as a function of DR for all four PEs at the TUL of 228 mm.
Comparison of (a) experimental and (b) predicted necking profile of LDPE and LLDPE for one representative TUL of 90 mm.
Comparison of experimental and predicted necking profile for the two PEs at a fixed DR of 6 for (a) TUL = 228 mm and (b) TUL = 90 mm.
Normalized final film width (experimental and predictions) as a function of DR for (a) LDPE 170A, (b) LLDPE 2045G at different TULs, and (c) LDPE and LLDPE at TUL = 228 mm. Normalized final film thickness (experimental and predictions) as a function of DR for (d) LDPE 170A, (e) LLDPE 2045 G at different TULs, and (f) LDPE and LLDPE at TUL = 228 mm. For (a)–(e), squares: TUL = 10 mm; circles: TUL = 90 mm; inverted triangles: TUL = 228 mm. Symbols correspond to experimental data and lines correspond to predictions.
as a function of normalized axial distance for LLDPE 2045G and LDPE 170A at (a) various DRs at TUL = 90 mm and (b) various TULs at DR = 6.
Extent of necking (L 0 − L) plotted as a function of normalized axial distance for LLDPE 2045G and LDPE 170A at (a) various DRs at TUL = 90 mm and (b) various TULs at DR = 6.
Molecular stretch for slowest relaxing mode for (a) DR = 2 and (b) DR = 17 and, the corresponding axial stresses along stretching direction for (c) DR = 2 and (d) DR = 17 (filled circles: LDPE; open triangles: LLDPE).
Model predictions of the effect of DR on film necking for the two LLDPEs at two DRs: (a) low DR = 4 and (b) high DR = 17 at a TUL = 10 mm.
Effect of addition of branches on fast relaxing modes on the extent of necking plotted as a function of normalized axial distance.
Experimental and predicted film width profile of LLDPE 2045G and HDPE DMDH6400 at DR of 6 for TUL of 228 mm.
(a) Effect of polydispersity on extent of film necking and (b) effect of relaxation modes on extent of film necking at a DR of 4 and TUL of 228 mm.
HT-GPC and HT-NMR data for all PE resins.
Parameters obtained from linear rheology of PE resins.
Relaxation spectrum for (a) LLDPE 2045G with RP-S parameters, (b) LLDPE 1840G with XPP parameters c , (c) HDPE DMDH6400 with RP-S parameters, and (d) LDPE 170A with XPP parameters at 150 °C.
Modified XPP parameters for s-LCB-LLDPE showing different LCB distributions.
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