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The influence of inertia and elastic retraction on flow-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene
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10.1122/1.4812671
/content/sor/journal/jor2/57/5/10.1122/1.4812671
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/sor/journal/jor2/57/5/10.1122/1.4812671

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic drawings of (a) the cone-plate rheometer with PTV capability and (b) the sliced sample for SR-μWAXD measurement.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A graphical representation of the testing protocol: (a) The iPP sample with tracer particles was heated up to 220 °C with a rate of 8.5 °C/min. (b) The sample was kept in 220 °C for 20 min to eliminate thermal history. (c) The sample was cooled to 144 °C with a rate of 4.5 °C/min and (d) subjected to shear experiment at a given shear rate and strain. (e) The isothermal crystallization of the sheared sample was kept in 144 °C for an hour and then (f) was cooled to room temperature naturally.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) and (b) Stress-strain curves, (c) and (d) velocity profiles of tracer particles during shear, (e) and (f) displacement of tracer particles after shear cessation of supercooled melts. The samples were sheared at a fixed apparent strain of with different strain rate in (a), (c), and (e), and fixed apparent strain rate of with different strains in (b), (d), and (f).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The average orientation of iPP crystal measured with 2D SAXS in samples sheared with (a) a constant strain of 10 but different strain rates and (b) a constant strain rate of 20.6 s but different strain.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

At a strain rate of 20.6 s and a strain of 0.5. (a) Representative 2D SR-μWAXD patterns of iPP at different locations across the shearing gap (the numbers in the top right corner of the patterns are the distances from the bottom plate) (b) The peak positions of (040) diffraction along azimuthal angle.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Representative 2D SR-μWAXD patterns of iPP at different locations across the shearing gap (the numbers in the top right corner of the patterns are the distances from the bottom plate) at a strain rate of 20.6 s and a strain of 10.7. (b) Distributions of crystal orientation across the shearing gap in blue dotted-line. The displacement of tracer particles after shear is also plotted for the convenience of correlation (ΔX red open square-line).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Representative 2D SR-μWAXD patterns of iPP at different locations across the shearing gap (the numbers in the top right corner of the patterns are the distances from the bottom plate) at a strain rate of 20.6 s and a strain of 2.7. (b) Distributions of crystal orientation across the shearing gap in blue dotted-line. The displacement of tracer particles after shear is also plotted for the convenience of correlation (ΔX red open square-line).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Representative 2D SR-μWAXD patterns of iPP at different locations across the shearing gap (the numbers in the top right corner of the patterns are the distances from the bottom plate) at a strain rate of 20.6 s and a strain of 27.7 from samples with (a) and without (b) tracer particles, respectively. (c) Distributions of crystal orientation across the shearing gap in blue lines present samples with and without tracer particles, respectively. The displacement of tracer particles after shear is also plotted for the convenience of correlation (ΔX red open square-line).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Representative 2D SR-μWAXD patterns of iPP at different locations across the shearing gap (the numbers in the top right corner of the patterns are the distances from the bottom plate) at a strain rate of 15.4 s and a strain of 10. (b) Distributions of crystal orientation across the shearing gap in blue dotted-line. The displacement of tracer particles after shear is also plotted for the convenience of correlation (ΔX red open square-line).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

A schematic molecular illustration on shear induced crystallization. (a) The displacement of tracer particles after shear with an image of PTV. (b) During the shear, the molecular chains with a relative high orientation. (c) After shear cessation, the residual flow helps molecular chains keep their orientation in the upper one while the backflow makes a strong retraction in the bottom one.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE I.

Apparent and real rheological parameters.

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/content/sor/journal/jor2/57/5/10.1122/1.4812671
2013-07-08
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: The influence of inertia and elastic retraction on flow-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/sor/journal/jor2/57/5/10.1122/1.4812671
10.1122/1.4812671
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